周慧颖, 祝晓慧, 谭婧琳, 等. 不同根构型大豆与甜玉米间作对作物生长与磷吸收的影响[J]. 华南农业大学学报, 2024, 45(4): 505-515. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202312002
    引用本文: 周慧颖, 祝晓慧, 谭婧琳, 等. 不同根构型大豆与甜玉米间作对作物生长与磷吸收的影响[J]. 华南农业大学学报, 2024, 45(4): 505-515. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202312002
    ZHOU Huiying, ZHU Xiaohui, TAN Jinglin, et al. Effects of intercropping soybeans with different root architecture and sweet maize on crop growth and phosphorus uptake[J]. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 2024, 45(4): 505-515. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202312002
    Citation: ZHOU Huiying, ZHU Xiaohui, TAN Jinglin, et al. Effects of intercropping soybeans with different root architecture and sweet maize on crop growth and phosphorus uptake[J]. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 2024, 45(4): 505-515. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202312002

    不同根构型大豆与甜玉米间作对作物生长与磷吸收的影响

    Effects of intercropping soybeans with different root architecture and sweet maize on crop growth and phosphorus uptake

    • 摘要:
      目的 研究不同磷水平下不同根构型大豆与甜玉米间作对作物磷吸收与生长的影响,探究间作体系内根系形态、构型及根际土壤磷有效性等的关系。
      方法 田间试验于2022年8月在广东省广州市增城区华南农业大学教学试验基地进行。以2个不同根构型的大豆品种‘本地2号’(深根型)和‘粤春03-3’(浅根型)为材料,采用裂区设计,主区为施磷(+P:大豆40 kg·hm−2、甜玉米120 kg· hm−2)和不施磷(−P:大豆0 kg·hm−2、甜玉米0 kg·hm−2) 2种施磷水平,副区为甜玉米单作、‘本地2号’‖甜玉米、‘粤春03-3’‖甜玉米、‘本地2号’单作和‘粤春03-3’单作5种种植模式。测定甜玉米和大豆的产量、生物量、磷吸收量以及根系形态和构型的相关指标,计算间作系统的土地当量比和种间竞争力。
      结果 无论施磷还是不施磷条件下,间作大豆显著增加甜玉米产量,平均增产33.4%;不施磷条件下,间作大豆显著增加甜玉米生物量,平均增加62.7%。甜玉米和大豆间作具有间作优势,且受施磷水平影响;施磷条件下甜玉米与大豆间作的土地当量比为1.08,而不施磷条件下为1.21。种间竞争力分析表明,间作体系中,甜玉米竞争力显著强于大豆(种间竞争力>0),这种竞争优势在不施磷条件下更明显。此外,不施磷条件下间作深根型大豆‘本地2号’显著促进甜玉米磷吸收,平均增加40.6%。进一步分析发现,不施磷间作改变深根型大豆细根(直径≤0.5 mm)占比,同时诱导其根系拓宽,并显著提升甜玉米根际土壤有效磷含量。对间作体系内大豆和甜玉米性状的相关性分析发现,甜玉米的生物量与其总根长、大豆根宽和大豆根际土壤有效磷含量呈显著正相关;大豆的生物量与其磷吸收量、总根长、根宽以及根际土壤有效磷含量呈显著正相关,与其细根占比(直径≤0.5 mm)呈显著负相关。
      结论 不施磷条件下,间作深根型大豆可有效促进甜玉米生长与磷吸收,提高甜玉米产量。研究结果为充分挖掘甜玉米‖大豆间作系统磷素利用潜力、筛选适合间作的大豆品种、实现磷肥减施增效提供了重要理论依据。

       

      Abstract:
      Objective To study the effects of intercropping soybeans with different root architecture and sweet maize on crop phosphorus (P) uptake and growth under different P levels, and explore the relationship among root morphology, root architecture, P availability in rhizospheric soil and so on within the intercropping system.
      Method Field experiments were conducted in August 2022 at the Teaching and Experimental Base of South China Agricultural University in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province. Two different soybean cultivars, namely ‘Bendi 2’ (deep-rooted genotype) and ‘Yuechun 03-3’ (shallow-rooted genotype) were selected as experimental materials. The field experiment employed a split-plot design, with the main plots comprising two P application levels: With P (+P: 40 kg·hm−2 for soybean, 120 kg·hm−2 for sweet maize) and without P (−P: 0 kg·hm−2 for both soybean and sweet maize). The subplots consisted of five different planting patterns as follows: Sweet maize monocropping, soybean ‘Bendi 2’‖sweet maize, soybean ‘Yuechun 03-3’‖sweet maize, soybean ‘Bendi 2’ monocropping and soybean ‘Yuechun 03-3’ monocropping. The yield, biomass, P uptake, root morphology and architecture of sweet maize and soybean were measured, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) and interspecific competitiveness of the intercropping system were calculated.
      Result Intercropping soybean significantly increased the yield of sweet maize by average of 33.4% under both P levels. Under −P condition, intercropping soybean significantly increased the biomass of sweet maize by average of 62.7%. Intercropping sweet maize and soybean exhibited advantages, influencing by P application levels. Under +P condition, the average LER for intercropped sweet maize and soybean was 1.08, while under −P condition, the average LER increased to 1.21. Interspecific competition analysis indicated that in the intercropping system, sweet maize showed significantly stronger competitiveness than soybean (interspecitic competitiveness > 0). This competitive advantage was more pronounced under −P condition. In addition, intercropping with deep-rooted soybean genotype (‘Bendi 2’) significantly promoted P uptake in sweet maize under −P condition by average of 40.6%. Further analysis revealed that for deep-rooted soybean ‘Bendi 2’, intercropping with sweet maize under −P condition widened its root width, altered the proportion of fine roots (diameter ≤ 0.5 mm), and significantly increased P availability in the rhizosphere of intercropping maize. The correlation analysis of traits of soybean and sweet maize in the intercropping system revealed a significant positive correlation between the biomass of sweet maize and its total root length, root width of soybean, and available P content in the soybean rhizosphere soil. The biomass of soybean showed a significant positive correlation with its P uptake, total root length, root width, and available P content in the rhizosphere soil. However, it exhibited a significant negative correlation with its proportion of fine roots (diameter ≤ 0.5 mm).
      Conclusion Intercropping with deep rooting soybean under −P condition can effectively promote the growth and P absorption of sweet maize, and increase its yield. These findings provide important theoretical basis for fully exploring the P utilization potential in the sweet maize‖soybean intercropping system, screening suitable soybean varieties for crop intercropping, and achieving reduced P fertilization rate with increased P use efficiency.

       

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