逯路文, 杨飞, 王倩倩, 等. 不同类型土壤上玉米生长对低磷和施磷肥的响应[J]. 华南农业大学学报, 2024, 45(4): 1-9. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202309017
    引用本文: 逯路文, 杨飞, 王倩倩, 等. 不同类型土壤上玉米生长对低磷和施磷肥的响应[J]. 华南农业大学学报, 2024, 45(4): 1-9. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202309017
    LU Luwen, YANG Fei, WANG Qianqian, et al. Responses of maize growth to low phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer application in different types of soil[J]. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 2024, 45(4): 1-9. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202309017
    Citation: LU Luwen, YANG Fei, WANG Qianqian, et al. Responses of maize growth to low phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer application in different types of soil[J]. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 2024, 45(4): 1-9. doi: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.202309017

    不同类型土壤上玉米生长对低磷和施磷肥的响应

    Responses of maize growth to low phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer application in different types of soil

    • 摘要:
      目的 通过在酸性和石灰性土壤上种植玉米,探究在不同类型土壤上,缺磷和施用磷肥对玉米生长、磷吸收、根系性状、菌根侵染率以及根际指标的影响。
      方法 分别利用2种不同来源的酸性土壤(NX和WY)与2种不同来源的石灰性土壤(SP和CP)进行不施磷肥(低磷,LP)与施磷肥(高磷,HP)的玉米盆栽试验,对玉米的植株干质量、磷质量、根系性状(总根长、根表面积、根体积、平均根直径)、菌根侵染率、以及根际指标(根际pH、根际磷酸酶活性、根际羧酸盐含量)进行测定分析。
      结果 缺磷严重影响玉米植株生长,施磷显著增加了酸性和石灰性土壤上玉米植株干质量和磷质量;在2种酸性土壤和CP石灰性土壤中,施磷显著增加了玉米总根长、根表面积、根体积、平均根直径,降低了玉米菌根侵染率和根际羧酸盐含量;施磷显著降低了NX酸性土壤中根际酸性磷酸酶活性和CP石灰性土壤根际pH。主成分分析表明,在低磷条件下,根系性状与植株干质量和磷质量呈正相关关系,根际羧酸盐含量、菌根侵染率与植株干质量和磷质量均呈负相关关系;在高磷条件下,菌根侵染率、碱性磷酸酶活性、根际pH、平均根直径与植株干质量和磷质量均呈正相关关系。
      结论 施用磷肥可促进不同类型土壤上玉米植株的生长和磷吸收,玉米对施磷的响应很大程度上受到土壤本底养分含量的影响,有效磷含量低的土壤对施用磷肥的响应更加明显。在低磷条件下,玉米主要通过改变根系性状促进磷吸收。

       

      Abstract:
      Objective To investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) deficiency and P fertilizer application on maize growth, P uptake, root traits, mycorrhizal colonization rate, and rhizosphere indexes in acid or calcareous soil.
      Method Two different sources of acid soil (NX and WY) and two different sources of calcareous soil (SP and CP) were used in the pot experiment for maize with no P fertilization (low P, LP) or P fertilization (high P, HP) treatment. Maize plant dry weight, P weight, root traits (total root length, root surface area, root volume, average root diameter), mycorrhizal colonization rate, and rhizosphere indexes (rhizosphere pH, rhizosphere phosphatase activity, rhizosphere carboxylate content) were determined.
      Result P deficiency seriously affected plant growth, and P application significantly increased plant dry weight and P weight of maize in acid or calcareous soil. P application significantly increased total root length, root surface area, root volume, and average root diameter, and reduced mycorrhizal colonization rate and rhizosphere carboxylate content of maize in both acid soil and CP calcareous soil. P application also significantly reduced rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity in NX acid soil and rhizosphere pH in CP calcareous soil. Principal component analysis showed that, under low P condition, maize root traits were positively correlated with plant dry weight and P weight, while rhizosphere carboxylate content and mycorrhizal colonization rate were negatively correlated with plant dry weight and P weight. Under high P condition, mycorrhizal colonization rate, alkaline phosphatase activity, rhizosphere pH, and average root diameter of maize were all positively correlated with plant dry weight and P weight.
      Conclusion P fertilization can promote plant growth and P uptake of maize in different type of soil. The response of maize to P application is largely influenced by the background nutrient content in soil, and the soil with low P availability is more responsive to P fertilization. Maize mainly alters root traits to promote P uptake under low P condition.

       

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